Romsey Australia

Australian and New Zealand Food Additives Codes - Numerical List

  Double Click on a word to get a Dictionary definition of that word.

Food Additives Permitted to be used in food.

Select a category
Colour. 100 - 181
Preservative, colour fixative, acidity regulator. 200 - 297
Antioxidant, anti-caking, acidity regulator, humectant. 300 - 385
Emulsifier, thickener, stabiliser, gelling agents. 400 - 492
Anti-caking, foaming, firming, gelling, bulking agents . 500 - 586
Flavour enhancer . 620 - 641
Sweetener, humectant, thickener, stabiliser . 900a - 968
Enzyme, thickener, stabiliser, humectant. 1001 - 1521

Search for a code number.


Chemical Name


Colour.  100 - 181

Curcumin or Turmeric (colour)
Orange-yellow colour; derived from the root of the curcuma plant, but can be artificially produced; used in cheese, margarine, baked sweets and fish fingers


Riboflavin or Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (colour)
'Vitamin B2' and colour; occurs naturally in green vegetables, eggs, milk, liver and kidney; used in margarine and cheese.


Tartrazine (colour)
Used to colour, sweets, jams, cereals, snack foods, canned fish, packaged soups, confectionery, fruit juice cordials, soft drinks, canned fruit, canned peas, brown sauces, pickles and flavoured pie fillings.


Alkanet or Alkannin (colour)
Natural 'port-wine' colour from A. tinctoria plant.


Quinoline yellow (colour)


Sunset yellow FCF (colour)
Used in cereals, bakery, sweets, snack foods, ice cream, drinks and canned fish Fruit juice cordials, packet trifle mix, hot chocolate mix, packet soup and confectionery.


Carmines or Carminic acid or Cochineal (colour)


Azorubine or Carmoisine (colour)
Confectionery, marzipan, jelly crystals, pre-packaged sponge fillings, pre-packages Swiss roll, marzipan, brown sauce.


Amaranth (colour)
Used in cake mixes, fruit-flavoured fillings, jelly crystals


Ponceau 4R (colour)
Desert toppings, canned strawberries, packet cheesecake, cake mix, trifle mix, jelly crystals.


Erythrosine (colour)
Glace cherries, scotch eggs, biscuits, custard mix, canned cherries, rhubarb, strawberries, canned fruit, sweets, bakery, snack foods.


Allura red AC (colour)
Orange Red colour used in sweets, drinks, condiments, medications, cosmetics.


Indigotine (colour)
Commonly added to tablets and capsules, Biscuits,ice cream, confectionery, baked goods.


Brilliant blue FCF (colour)
Soft drink, dairy products, canned peas, gelatine, cereal, toothpaste cosmetics, deodorant.


Chlorophyll (colour)
Green colour occurs naturally in all plants; used for dyeing waxes and oils, used in medicines and cosmetics.


Chlorophyll-copper complex (colour)
Olive colour, extracted from plants


Green S (colour)
Used in canned peas, mint jelly and sauce.


Fast green FCF (colour)


Caramel I (colour)
Used in oyster, soy, fruit and canned sauces, beer, whiskey


Caramel II (colour)


Caramel III (colour)


Caramel IV (colour)


Brilliant black BN or Brilliant black PN (colour)
Used in brown sauces, blackcurrant cake mixes


Carbon black or vegetable carbon (colour)
Used in jams, jelly crystals, liquorice


Brown HT (colour) Chocolate cake mixes


Carotene (colour)
Natural orange/yellow colour; found in carrots and other yellow or orange fruits and vegetables.


Annatto extracts (colour)
Red colour; derived from a tree (Bixa orellana) used to dye cheese, butter, margarine, cereals, snack foods also used in soaps, textiles and varnishes.


Paprika oleoresins (colour)
Derived from fruit pods of the red pepper.


Lycopene (colour)


b-apo-8' Carotenal (colour)


b-apo-8' Carotenoic acid or methyl ethyl ester (colour)


Flavoxanthin (colour)


Lutein (colour)


Kryptoxanthin (colour)


Rubixanthin (colour)


Violoxanthin (colour)


Rhodoxanthin (colour)


Beet red (colour) Purple colour derived from beets.


Anthocyanins or Grape skin extract or Blackcurrant extract (colour)


Saffron or Crocetin or Crocin (colour)


Calcium carbonate (colour, anti-caking agent)
Mineral salt. Also used in toothpastes, white paint and cleaning powders; may be derived from rock mineral or animal bones; sometimes used to de-acidify wines and firm canned fruit and vegetables.


Titanium dioxide (colour)
White colour also used in toothpaste and white paint


Iron oxide (colour)
Black, yellow, red colour used in salmon and shrimp pastes


Aluminium (colour)


Silver (colour)


Gold (colour)


Tannic acid or tannins (colour, emulsifier, stabiliser, thickener)
Occurs naturally in tea.


 Preservative, colour fixative, acidity regulator. 200 - 297
[ Top ]

Sorbic acid (preservative)
Almost every food product.Sausages,yoghurt , confectionery , lemonade, cheese, rye bread, cakes , pizza, shellfish, lemon juice, wine, cider and soups.


Sodium sorbate (preservative)
Either obtained from berries or synthesised from ketene. Found in a large range of foods and drinks, yeast goods, cheeses and wine making


Potassium sorbate (preservative)


Calcium sorbate (preservative)


Benzoic acid (preservative)
Added to alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy, cordial, chilli paste, brewed soft drinks, fruit juice, non-dairy dips, non-canned tomato juice, relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes. Used in cosmetics, as an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments.


Sodium benzoate (preservative)
As above. Pepsi Max, Fanta, Sprite, Sunkist, Coke Zero, cordials and other drinks, also in milk and meat products, relishes and condiments, baked goods and lollies, tooth pastes, mouth washes, maple syrup and margarine.


Potassium benzoate (preservative)
Added to alcoholic beverages, baked goods, cheeses, gum, condiments, frozen dairy, relishes, soft sweets, cordials and sugar substitutes. Used in cosmetics, as an antiseptic in many cough medications and an antifungal in ointments.


Calcium benzoate (preservative)
Fruit juice cordials, cordials, soft drinks, fish marinades.


Propylparaben or Propyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate (preservative)


Methylparaben or Methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate (preservative)


Sulphur dioxide (preservative)
Fruit juices, cider, low-kilojoule jam, mixed dried fruit, dehydrated peas, cordials, syrups, flavoured toppings, pickles beer, soft drinks, wine, vinegar, potato products.


Sodium sulphite (preservative)
As above -- uncooked prawns shrimps, bread enhancer.


Sodium bisulphite (preservative)  As above


Sodium metabisulphite (preservative)
Bread flour products, frozen vegetables shellfish, dried fruits, pickles, fruit juice, cordials.


Potassium metabisulphite (preservative)
Typical products are beer, soft drinks, dried fruit, juices, cordials, wine, vinegar, potato products.


Potassium sulphite (preservative)  Derived from coal tar


Potassium bisulphite (preservative)


Nisin (preservative)
Antibiotic derived from bacteria; found in beer, processed cheese products, tomato paste.


Natamycin or Pimaricin (preservative)
Mould inhibitor derived from bacteria. Used in meat, cheese.


Dimethyl dicarbonate (preservative)
Yeast inhibitor. Used in fruit drinks, sports drinks and wine.


Potassium nitrite (preservative, colour fixative)
Corned, cured, pickled, manufactured pressed salt meats.


Sodium nitrite (preservative, colour fixative)
Canned, manufactured, cured pressed meat.


Sodium nitrate (preservative, colour fixative)
Slow-dried meat, prosciutto ham manufactured meat.


Potassium nitrate (preservative, colour fixative)
May be derived from waste animal or vegetable matter; used in gunpowder, explosives and fertilisers, and in the preservation of meat


Acetic acid, glacial (acidity regulator)
Main component of vinegar, synthetically produced from wood fibres; used in pickles, chutneys, and sauces.


Potassium acetate or Potassium diacetate (acidity regulator)


Sodium acetates (acidity regulator)
(ii) Sodium hydrogen acetate (sodium diacetate) - A vinegar used as a mould inhibitor in snack foods and bread, as a flavour enhancer in breads, cakes, cheese and snack food.


Calcium acetate (acidity regulator)


Ammonium acetate (acidity regulator)


Lactic acid (acidity regulator)
Occurs naturally in sour milk, apples, tomatoes and molasses. used in sweets, dressings, soft drinks , infant formulas and confectionery.


Propionic acid (preservative)
Propionates occur naturally in fermented foods, human perspiration and ruminants digestive tract, also can be derived commercially from ethylene and carbon monoxide or propionaldehyde , natural gas , fermented wood pulp or produced when bacteria decompose fibre. Commonly used in bread cheese and flour products.


Sodium propionate (preservative)  Bread flour products.


Calcium propionate (preservative)  Bread flour products.


Potassium propionate (preservative)  Bread flour products.


Carbon dioxide (propellant)  Wine, soft drinks,


Malic acid (acidity regulator)
Potato snacks, confectionery, spaghetti sauce, frozen vegetables, tinned tomatoes.


Fumaric acid (acidity regulator)  Soft drinks and cake mixes.


 Antioxidant, anti-caking agent, acidity regulator, humectant, bulking agent, stabiliser. 300 - 385
[ Top ]

Ascorbic acid (antioxidant)
Vitamin C. Occurs naturally in fruit and vegetables; added to products as diverse as cured meat, breakfast cereals, frozen fish and wine.


Sodium ascorbate (antioxidant)  Sodium salt of vitamin C.


Calcium ascorbate (antioxidant)


Potassium ascorbate (antioxidant) Potassium salt of vitamin C.


Ascorbyl palmitate (antioxidant)


Tocopherols concentrate, mixed (antioxidant)  'Vitamin E'
Found in vegetable oils, including soy, wheat germ, rice germ, cottonseed, maize. Used in margarine and salad dressings.


a-Tocopherol (antioxidant)


g-Tocopherol (antioxidant)


d-Tocopherol (antioxidant)


Propyl gallate (antioxidant)
Used to prevent rancidity in oily substances such as edible fats, spreads, lard, dripping, margarine.


Octyl gallate (antioxidant)


Dodecyl gallate (antioxidant)


Erythorbic acid (antioxidant)


Sodium erythorbate (antioxidant)


tert-Butylhydroquinone (antioxidant)
Used in dairy blend edible fats and oils, margarine, dripping, salad dressing also used in lipsticks.


Butylated hydroxyanisole (antioxidant)  Petroleum derivative.
Instant mashed potato, edible oil, reduced fat spread, chewing gum, baby oil also used in lipstick, eye liner.


Butylated hydroxytoluene (antioxidant)  Retards rancidity in fats, oils, and oil-containing foods. Cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, vegetable oils also used in lipstick, eye liner.


Lecithin (antioxidant, emulsifier)
Derived from soy beans, eggs, peanuts, corn. Used to allow combination of oils in margarine, chocolate, mayonnaise, milk powder, potato chips, puddings, breakfast cereals.


Sodium lactate (acidity regulator, humectant, bulking agent)
Occurs in sour milk, apples, tomatoes and molasses. Found in biscuits, cheese, confectionery and a wide range of foods.


Potassium lactate (acidity regulator, humectant)


Calcium lactate (acidity regulator)


Ammonium lactate (acidity regulator)


Magnesium lactate (acidity regulator)


Citric acid (acidity regulator, antioxidant)
Naturally derived from citrus fruit. Used in biscuits, canned fish, cheese and processed cheese, infant formulas, cake and soup mixes, rye bread, soft drinks, fermented meat products.


Sodium citrates (acidity regulator, emulsifier, stabiliser)
Cheese, cream, includes a wide range of foods.


Potassium citrates (acidity regulator, stabiliser)
Found in artificially sweetened jelly and confectionery and in a wide range of foods.


Calcium citrates (acidity regulator, stabiliser)
In tinned vegetables and wide range of foods.


Tartaric acid (acidity regulator, antioxidant)
Obtained from unripe fruit, grape juice. Found in chewing gum and various types of foods and drinks


Sodium tartrates (acidity regulator)


Potassium tartrate or Potassium acid tartrate (acidity regulator, stabiliser)


Potassium sodium tartrate (acidity regulator, stabiliser)


Phosphoric acid (acidity regulator)
Soft drinks, beer, cheese products, snacks, and most processed foods.


Sodium phosphates (acidity regulator, emulsifier, stabiliser)


Potassium phosphates (acidity regulator, emulsifier, stabiliser)Baked goods, cheese, powdered foods, cured meats, soda pop, breakfast cereals, dehydrated potatoes


Calcium phosphates (acidity regulator, emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-caking agent)


Ammonium phosphates (acidity regulator)


Magnesium phosphates (acidity regulator, anti-caking agent)
Found in salt substitutes, sweetened coconut and mustard.


Ammonium malate (acidity regulator)


Sodium malates (acidity regulator, humectant)
Found in potato snacks, confectionery, spaghetti sauce, frozen vegetables, tinned tomatoes.


Potassium malates (acidity regulator)


Calcium malates (acidity regulator)


Metatartaric acid (acidity regulator)


Calcium tartrate (acidity regulator)


Adipic acid (acidity regulator)


Potassium adipate (acidity regulator)


Ammonium adipates (acidity regulator)


Succinic acid (acidity regulator)


Sodium fumarate (acidity regulator)


Potassium fumarate (acidity regulator)


Calcium fumarate (acidity regulator)


Ammonium fumarate (acidity regulator)


Ammonium citrate or triammonium citrate (acidity regulator)


Ferric ammonium citrate (acidity regulator, anti-caking agent)


Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate or calcium disodium EDTA (preservative, antioxidant)
Canned soft drink, tinned white potatoes, salad dressings, egg products, oleomargarine, potato salad, lima beans, mushrooms, pecan pie filling, sandwich spreads


 Emulsifier, thickener, stabiliser, gelling agents. 400 - 492
[ Top ]

Alginic acid (thickener, stabiliser)


Sodium alginate (thickener, stabiliser, gelling agent)
Vegetable gum, derived from seaweed; artificial sweetener base, used in custard mix, cordial, flavoured milk, ice blocks, pastry, jelly, ice cream, cheese, confectionery, canned icing, beer thickened cream and yoghurt.


Potassium alginate (thickener, stabiliser)


Ammonium alginate (thickener, stabiliser)


Calcium alginate (thickener, stabiliser, gelling agent)


Propylene glycol alginate (thickener, emulsifier)
Derived from petroleum. Artificial sweetener base, also used in germicides, paint remover and antifreeze.


Agar (thickener, gelling agent, stabiliser)
Manufactured meats and ice cream.


Carrageenan (thickener, gelling agent, stabiliser)
Derived from seaweed: Ice cream, jelly, chocolate milk.


Processed eucheuma seaweed (thickener, gelling agent, stabiliser)


Arabinogalactan or Larch gum (thickener, gelling agent, stabiliser)


Locust bean gum or Carob bean gum (thickener, stabiliser)


Guar gum (thickener, stabiliser)
Gums are derived from natural sources bushes, trees, seaweed: Used in beverages, ice cream, frozen pudding, salad dressing, dough, cottage cheese, candy, drink mixes


Tragacanth gum (thickener, stabiliser)


Acacia or gum Arabic (thickener, stabiliser)


Xanthan gum (thickener, stabiliser)


Karaya gum (thickener, stabiliser)


Gellan gum (thickener, stabiliser, gelling agent)


Sorbitol or sorbitol syrup (sweetener, humectant, emulsifier)


Mannitol (sweetener, humectant)


Glycerin or glycerol (humectant)
Crystallised and dried fruit, liqueurs, marshmallows, soft drinks, desserts, confectionery also used in tooth paste


Polyethylene (40) stearate (emulsifier)


Polysorbate 80 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan moonoleate (emulsifier) Baked goods, frozen desserts, imitation dairy products keeps baked goods from getting stale.


Polysorbate 60 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (emulsifier)


Polysorbate 65 or Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate (emulsifier)


Pectins (thickener, stabiliser, gelling agent)
Naturally occurring in the skins of apples; used to thicken jams, jellies and sauces


Ammonium salts of phosphatidic acid (emulsifier)


Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Glycerol esters of wood rosins (emulsifier, stabiliser) prepared from wood rosin that is harvested from the stumps of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)
Water-based flavoured drinks, including "sport," "energy," or "electrolyte" drinks and particulated drinks 150 mg/kg
Surface-treated fresh vegetables (including mushrooms and fungi, roots and tubers, pulses and legumes, and aloe vera ), fruits,seaweeds and nuts and seeds. 110 mg/kg
also used in eyeliner pencils


Potassium pyrophosphate or Sodium acid pyrophosphate or Sodium pyrophosphate (emulsifiers, acidity regulators, stabilisers)


Potassium tripolyphosphate or Sodium tripolyphosphate (acidity regulator)


Potassium polymetaphosphate or Sodium metaphosphate, insoluble or Sodium polyphosphates, glassy (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Cellulose microcrystalline and powdered (anti-caking agent)


Methyl cellulose (thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier)


Hydroxypropyl cellulose (thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier)


Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier)


Methyl ethyl cellulose (thickener, stabiliser, emulsifier, foaming agent)


Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (thickener, stabiliser)
It prevents sugar from crystallizing. Ice cream, beer, pie fillings, icings, diet foods, candy.


Aluminium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and ammonium salts of fatty acids (emulsifier, stabiliser, anti-caking agent)


Mono- and di-glycerides of fatty acids (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (emulsifier)


Mixed tartaric, acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Sucrose esters of fatty acids (emulsifier)


Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (emulsifier)


Polyglycerol esters of interesterified ricinoleic acid (emulsifier)


Propylene glycol mono- and di-esters or Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids (emulsifier)


Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate (emulsifier)


Sodium lactylate or sodium oleyl lactylate or sodium stearoyl lactylate (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Calcium lactylate or Calcium oleyl lactylate or Calcium stearoyl lactylate (emulsifier, stabiliser)


Sorbitan monostearate (emulsifier)


Sorbitan tristearate (emulsifier)


 Emulsifier, anti-caking agent, foaming agent, firming agent, gelling agent, bulking agent . 500 - 586
[ Top ]

Sodium carbonate or Sodium bicarbonate (acidity regulator, raising agent, anti-caking agent)


Potassium carbonates (acidity regulator, stabiliser)


Ammonium bicarbonate or Ammonium hydrogen carbonate (acidity regulator, raising agent)


Magnesium carbonate (acidity regulator, anti-caking agent)


Hydrochloric acid (acidity regulator)


Potassium chloride (gelling agent)


Calcium chloride (firming agent)


Ammonium chloride (bulking agent)


Magnesium chloride (firming agent)


Stannous chloride (antioxidant)


Sodium sulphate (acidity regulator)


Potassium sulphate (acidity regulator)


Calcium sulphate (firming agent) Derived from limestone
Bread rolls, flour, tinned tomatoes, soy tofu, dried egg, cheese products, also used in tooth paste, mortar, cement.


Magnesium sulphate (firming agent)


Cupric sulphate (mineral salt)


Calcium hydroxide (acidity regulator, firming agent)


Calcium oxide (acidity regulator)


Magnesium oxide (anti-caking agent)


Sodium ferrocyanide (anti-caking agent)


Potassium ferrocyanide (anti-caking agent)


Sodium aluminium phosphate (acidity regulator, emulsifier)


Bone phosphate (anti-caking agent, emulsifier)
Powdered milk and also as filler in tablets.


Silicon dioxide, amorphous (anti-caking agent) Sand/Quartz
Used in beer, confectionery, sausages, milk powder


Calcium silicate (anti-caking agent)


Magnesium silicate or Talc (anti-caking agent)


Sodium aluminosilicate (anti-caking agent)


Potassium aluminium silicate


Calcium aluminium silicate (anti-caking agent)


Bentonite (anti-caking agent)


Aluminium silicate (Anticaking agent)
Cheese, powdered milk, ready-to-eat, instant, and regular hot breakfast cereal products. Also used in cosmetics.( Kaolin )


Potassium silicate (anti-caking agent)


Stearic acid or fatty acid (glazing agent, foaming agent)


Glucono d -lactone or Glucono delta-lactone (acidity regulator, raising agent)


Potassium gluconate (sequestrant)


Calcium gluconate (acidity regulator, firming agent)


Ferrous gluconate (colour retention agent)


Magnesium gluconate (acidity regulatory, firming agent)


4-Hexylresorcinol (antioxidant)


 Flavour enhancer . 620 - 641
[ Top ]

L-Glutamic acid (flavour enhancer)


Monosodium L-glutamate or MSG (flavour enhancer)


Monopotassium L-glutamate (flavour enhancer)


Calcium glutamate (flavour enhancer)


Monoammonium L-glutamate (flavour enhancer)


Magnesium glutamate (flavour enhancer)


Disodium 5. -guanylate (flavour enhancer) from sardines.
Instant noodles, potato chips and snacks, savoury rice, tinned vegetables, cured meats, packet soup.


Disodium 5. -inosinate (flavour enhancer)


Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides (flavour enhancer)


Maltol (flavour enhancer)
Derived from the bark of larch trees, pine needles, chicory wood. Used in baked goods to give a 'fresh baked' taste and smell in bread and cakes, jam, ice cream, soft drinks.


Ethyl maltol (flavour enhancer)


Glycine (flavour enhancer)


L-Leucine (flavour enhancer)


 Sweetener, humectant, thickener, stabiliser . 900a - 968
[ Top ]

Polydimethylsiloxane or Dimethylpolysiloxane (anti-caking agent, emulsifier)
Confectionery, cordials, syrups and toppings, soft drinks, instant coffee, vinegar, chewing gum, chocolates.


Beeswax, white and yellow (glazing agent)


Carnauba wax (glazing agent)
Chocolates, cocoa products, chewing gum, confectionery, flavour carrier in drinks, savoury snacks, toppings and to wax fruit also used in cosmetics and inks.


Shellac (glazing agent) Derived from the lac insect of India; Used as glazing agent, chocolate, confectionery, orange fizzy drinks, orange skin and staining wood .


Petrolatum or petroleum jelly (glazing agent)


Oxidised polyethylene (humectant)


L-Cysteine monohydrochloride (raising agent)
Most often derived from chicken feathers or duck feathers, human hair has also been used in China. Used in baking to create stretchier doughs, especially for burger buns and French sticks. Source: The shocking truth about bread. The


Nitrogen (propellant)


Nitrous oxide (propellant  -  Laughing Gas)  used in Spray on artificial cream


Butane (propellant)


Isobutane (propellant)


Propane (propellant)


Octafluorocyclobutane (propellant)


Acesulphame potassium (sweetener)


Aspartame (sweetener)


Calcium cyclamate or sodium cyclamate or cyclamate (sweetener)


Isomalt (humectant, sweetener, bulking agent, anti-caking agent)


Saccharin or calcium saccharin or sodium saccharine or potassium saccharine (sweetener)


Sucralose (sweetener)


Alitame (sweetener)


Thaumatin (flavour enhancer, sweetener)


Neotame (sweetener)


Maltitol and maltitol syrup or hydrogenated glucose syrup (sweetener, stabiliser, emulsifier, humectant)


Lactitol (sweetener, humectant)


Xylitol (sweetener, humectant, stabiliser)


Erythritol (humectant, sweetener)


 Enzyme, thickener, stabiliser, humectant. 1001 - 1521
[ Top ]

Choline salts (emulsifier)


a-amylase (enzyme)


Proteases (papain, bromelain, ficin) (stabiliser, enzyme)


Glucose oxidase (antioxidant)


Lipases (enzyme)


Lysozyme (enzyme, preservative)


Polydextrose (humectant, bulking agent, stabiliser, thickener)


Polyvinylpyrrolidone (stabiliser)


Dextrin roasted starch (thickener, stabiliser)


Acid treated starch (thickener, stabiliser)


Alkaline treated starch (thickener, stabiliser)


Bleached starch (thickener, stabiliser)


Oxidised starch (thickener, stabiliser)


Enzyme treated starches (thickener, stabiliser)


Monostarch phosphate (thickener, stabiliser)


Distarch phosphate (thickener, stabiliser)


Phosphated distarch phosphate (thickener, stabiliser)


Acetylated distarch phosphate (thickener, stabiliser)


Starch acetate esterified with acetic anhydride (thickener, stabiliser)


Acetylated distarch adipate (thickener, stabiliser)


Hydroxypropyl starch (thickener, stabiliser)


Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (thickener, stabiliser)


Starch sodium octenylsuccinate (thickener, stabiliser)


Triethyl citrate (antifoaming agent)


Triacetin (humectant)


Propylene glycol (humectant)


Polyethylene glycol 8000 (antifoaming agent)


Updated up to the 31st Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2008)



From Sunday 13 September 2009, bread-making flour in Australia must have folic acid, a form of the B vitamin folate, added to it to reduce the risk of babies being born with birth defects such as spina bifida.

Australia has decided to stick with the plan despite New Zealand backing out after concerns were raised about the health ramifications.
New Zealand will instead proceed with a targeted voluntary programme.

The impact on the population at large has since been questioned, however, after a possible link was discovered between folic acid as a dietary supplement and the incidence of certain cancers.
As a result, Ireland, the UK and New Zealand, put on hold their mandatory fortification schemes until further research was carried out.
" In New Zealand mandatory fortification of folic acid in bread will be deferred until May 2012, with the focus now on introducing a targeted voluntary programme, Minister for Food Safety Kate Wilkinson announced ( 27 August 2009 ) ".

From October 2009, most bread in Australia and New Zealand will contain added iodine (from iodised salt). The Standard requires the replacement of non-iodised salt with iodised salt in bread; however bread represented as ‘organic’ is exempt, consistent with the mandatory folic acid fortification standard.

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Synthetic Food Additives Colours.

INS* Food Additive MPL
  Schedule 1  
123 Amaranth Various, from 30 mg/kg in certain beverages to 300 mg/kg in confectionery
160b Annatto Various, from 10 mg/kg in liquid milk products and flavoured milk to 100 mg/kg in processed cereal meal products
127 Erythrosine 200 mg/kg in glace cherries
  Schedule 3  
120 Cochineal and Carmines Good Manufacturing Practice
  Schedule 4 70 mg/L in beverages
290mg/kg in other foods
129 Allura Red AC  
122 Azorubine/Carmoisine  
151 Brilliant Black BN  
133 Brilliant Blue FCF  
155 Brown HT  
143 Fast green FCF  
142 Green S  
132 Indigotine  
124 Ponceau 4R  
104 Quinoline yellow  
110 Sunset yellow FCF  
102 Tartrazine  

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Food Additives Permitted in Milk Products

1.1.2  Liquid milk products and flavoured liquid milk

Code Additive mg/kg
160b Annatto extracts 10
950 Acesulphame potassium 500
160b Alitame 40
950 Aspartame-acesulphame salt 1100

1.1.3  Liquid milk to which phytosterol esters have been added

Code Additive mg/kg
401 Sodium alginate 2
407 Carrageenan 2
412 Guar gum 2
471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids 2

1.1.4  Liquid milk to which tall oil phytosterols have been added

Code Additive mg/kg
460 Microcrystalline cellulose 5

1.2.2  Fermented milk products and rennetted milk products

Code Additive mg/kg
160b Annatto extracts 60
950 Acesulphame potassium 500
956 Alitame 60
962 Aspartame-acesulphame salt 1100

1.4.2  Cream products (flavoured, whipped, thickened, sour cream )

Code Additive mg/kg
234 Nisin 10

Whipped thickened light cream

Code Additive mg/kg
475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids 5000

1.5  Dried milk, milk powder, cream powder

Code Additive mg/kg
304 Ascorbyl palmitate 5000
320 Butylated hydroxyanisole 100
343 Magnesium phosphates 10000
431 Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate GMP
530 Magnesium oxide 10000
542 Bone phosphate 1000
555 Potassium aluminium silicate GMP

Compiled from Current Australian approved additives

  View List of Food Additives Permitted in Dairy Products 

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Colourings Permitted in Medicines for Oral Use

Additive No:
Alura Red AC 129
Amaranth 123
Annatto Extracts (Oil and Alkali-extracted) 160b
Annatto Extracts (Solvent-extracted)  
Anthocyanins Grape Skin Extract 163(ii)
Beet Red 162
Betacarotene 160a(i)
Brilliant Black BN Brilliant Black PN 151
Brilliant Blue FCF 133
Brilliant Scarlet 4R Ponceau 4R 124
Canthaxanthin 161
Class I: Plain Caramel,caustic caramel 150a
Class II: Caustic sulfite 150b
Class III: Ammonia caramel 150c
Class IV: Sulfite ammonia 150d
Carbon black Vegetable carbon 153
Carmoisine Azorubine 122
Carotenes Carotenes (Algae)  
Carotenes (Vegetable) 160a(ii)
Chlorophylls 140
Chlorophyllins - Copper  
Complexes Sodium and Potassium Salts 141(ii)
Chlorophyllin -Copper Complex)  
Chlorophylls - Copper Complexes 141(i)
Chocolate Brown HT Brown 155
Cochineal 120
Curcumin 100(i)
Erythrosine 127
Fast green FCF 143
Food Orange 6 Beta-apo-8'-carotenal 160
Food Orange 7 Beta-apo-8’-carotenoic Acid 160f
Green S 142
Indigo Carmine Indigotine 132
Iron Oxide Black 172(i)
Iron Oxide Red 172(ii)
Iron Oxide Yellow 172(iii)
Patent Blue V 131
Phloxine B  
Quinoline Yellow 104
Riboflavin 101(i)
Sunset Yellow FCF 110
Titanium Dioxide 171
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 Additives that are allowed in fish and fish products.
Unprocessed fish and fish fillets (including frozen and thawed)

Food Type Codex Number Additive Max (mg/kg)
Frozen fish fillets 300, 301, 302, 303 Ascorbic acid and sodium, calcium, potassium ascorbates 400
and 315, 316 Erythorbic acid and sodium erythorbate 400
peeled prawns 339, 340, 341 Sodium, potassium and calcium phosphates GMP
  450, 451, 452 Pyrophosphates, Triphosphates, Polyphosphates GMP
Uncooked crustacea 220, 221, 222, 223, Sulphur dioxide and sodium and potassium sulphites 100
  224, 225, 228   GMP
  300, 301, 302, 303 Ascorbic acid and sodium, calcium and potassium ascorbates GMP
  315, 316 Erythorbic acid and sodium erythorbate GMP
  330, 331, 332, Citric acid and sodium, potassium, calcium GMP
  333, 380 and ammonium citrates GMP
  500 Sodium carbonates GMP
  504 Magnesium carbonates GMP

GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) means using the lowest level possible of an additive to achieve a technological function (eg. preservation) which will leave the least residual in the final food.

Additives that are allowed in Processed fish and fish products.

Food Type Codex Number Additive Max (mg/kg)
Cooked crustacea 220, 221, 222, 223, Sulphur dioxide and sodium and potassium sulphites 30
  224, 225, 228    
Roe (all products) 123 Amaranth 300
Semi-preserved fish 160b Annatto extracts 10
  200, 201, 202, 203 Sorbic acid and sodium, potassium and calcium sorbates 2500
  210, 211, 212, 213 Benzoic acid and sodium and calcium benzoates 2500
Fully preserved fish 220, 221, 222, 223, Sulphur dioxide and sodium and potassium sulphites 30
and 224, 225, 228    
canned fish 385 Calcium disodium EDTA 250
Canned abalone (paua) 220, 221, 222, 223, Sulphur dioxide and sodium and potassium sulphites 1000
  224, 225, 228    

The maximum level of histamine permitted in fish or fish products. [2..2.3]

Histamine is a naturally produced toxin.
It is an indicator of decomposition and increased levels of histamine can be linked to inappropriate standards of hygiene and handling.
The level of histamine in fish or fish products must not exceed the following levels:

Decomposition – 10 mg/100 g of histamine for the species of Clupeidae, Scrombridae, Scrombresocidae, Pomatomidae and Coryphaenedae families.

Hygiene and handling – 20 mg per 100g. This applies only to species of the families Scrombridae, Clupeidae, Coryphaenidae, Scrombresocidae and Pomatomidae.

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What do food additives do?

Some food additives have more than one use. Food additives are listed according to their functional or class names. Examples of the most common functions are:

  • Acids / Acidity regulators / Alkalis help to maintain a constant acid level in food.   This is important for taste, as well as to influence how other substances in the food function.   For example, an acidified food can retard the growth of some micro-organisms.

  • Anti-caking agents reduce the tendency of individual food particles to adhere and improve flow characteristics.   For example, seasoning with an added anti-caking agent flows freely and doesn' t clump together.

  • Antioxidants retard or prevent the oxidative deterioration of foods.   For example, in fats and oils, rancid flavours can develop when they are exposed to oxygen.   Antioxidants prevent this from happening.

  • Bulking agents contribute to the volume of the food, without contributing significantly to its available energy.   For example, sugar often contributes to the volume of lollies, while some low-joule foods need bulking agents added to them to replace the bulk normally provided by sugar.

  • Colourings add or restore colour to foods.   For example, icing mixture is coloured to make it more attractive on cakes.

  • Emulsifiers facilitate or maintain oil and water from separating into layers.   For example, emulsifiers may be used in margarine to prevent oil forming a layer on top of the margarine.

  • Firming agents / Stabilisers maintain the uniform dispersion of substances in solid and semi-solid foods.

  • Flavour enhancers enhance the existing taste and/or odour of a food.

  • Foaming agents maintain the uniform dispersion of gases in aerated foods.

  • Gelling agents modify the texture of the food through gel formation.

  • Glazing agents impart a coating to the external surface of the food, for example a wax coating on fruit to improve its appearance.

  • Humectants reduce moisture loss in foods.   For example, glycerine may be added to icing to prevent it from drying out.

  • Preservatives retard or prevent the deterioration of food by micro-organisms, and thus prevent spoilage of foods.

  • Raising agents liberate gases, thereby increasing the volume of a food.   Raising agents are often used in baked goods.

  • Sweeteners replace the sweetness normal provided by sugars in foods without contributing significantly to their available energy.

  • Thickeners increase the viscosity of a food.   For example, a sauce might contain a thickener to give it the desired consistency.

Australian and New Zealand Food Additives Codes - Numerical List  (31 pages)

by Romsey Australia
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia License.


Revised and Updated April 2012