The following table includes all TV and FM signals received by the author, via multi-hop sporadic E. The distances will help other DXers determine a realistic view of the potential for multi-Es propagation.

Table 1: 45-92 MHz TV Reception

Frequency (MHz) Channel Call letters City, Country Distance miles Time EST Date
48.23958 /53.74 chE2 TVM 1 Genting Sempah, Malaysia 4,100 1900 19-11-2000
48.2495 / 53.75 chE2 TVM 1 Limbang, Malaysia 3,560 1600 18-1-95
48.26 / 53.76 chE2 ? Malaysia or Thailand? 3,500 + 1600 18-1-95
48.2602 chE2 ? Malaysia or Thailand? 3,500 + 1600 18-1-95
55.25 / 60.75 chE3 RTM Johore Bahru, Malaysia? 3,900 1600 18-1-95
55.25 / 59.75 chA2 ABS-CBN Manila, Philippines 3,900 1900-2000 10-1-98
55.2505 chA2 Low pwr relay Unidentified tx Philippines ~3,700 1900 10-1-98
55.2514 (warbly) chA2 Low pwr relay Unidentified tx Philippines ~3,700 1900 10-1-98
55.25 / 59.75 chA2 KVZK Pago Pago, American Samoa 2,700 1400 28-12-93
62.2491 chE4 TVRI Ujung Padang, Indonesia 2840 1725 18-1-95
62.260 chE4 ? Malaysia 3,500 + 1725 18-1-95
61.25 chA3 ASTL TV-3 (now QRT) Nukalofa, Tonga 2,000 1630 16-1-94
64.25 under local ch2 ABW-2 Perth, Western Australia 2,040 1900 25 12 91
64.24 under local ch2 ABAW-2 Albany, West Australia 1,900 1900 25-12-91
86.24 / 91.74 ch3 BTW-3 Bunbury, West Australia 2,040 1900 25-12-91

Table 2: 88-108 MHz FM Radio Reception

Frequency (MHz) Channel Call letters City, Country Distance miles Time EST Date
90.0 1 kW TBC Kool Nuku alofa, Tonga 2,000 1400 00-0-94
90.6 250 watts FM-96 Tavua, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-0-94
91.0 100 watts RFO Alo-1 Mt Mamati, Futuna Island 2,340 1400 16-1-96
92.1 15 kw KSBS Pago Pago, American Samoa 2,739 1400 17-1-94
93.1 1 kw Yumi FM Port Moresby, PNG 1,710 1543-52 25-1-99
93.3 60 kw 6ABC FM Bunbury, West Australia 2,040 1900 25-12-91
94.5 50 kw 6ABC FM Albany, Western Australia 1,900 1900 25-12-91
95.4 1 kw FM-96 Lautoka, Fiji 2,000 1400 25-12-93
95.4 500 watts FM-96 Labasa, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
95.5 3 kw 6ABC FM Kalgoorlie, West Australia 1,740 1400 00-00-95
96.0 1 kw FM-96 Suva, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
97.4 1 kw Navtarang Lautoka, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
97.7 50 kw 6ABC FM Perth, Western Australia 2,040 1900 25-12-91
98.0 1 kw Radio Fiji 1 Suva, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
98.4 1 kw Radio Fiji Lautoka, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
98.8 1 kw Navtarang Suva, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
98.9 50 kw 6ABC FM Northam, West Australia 2,000 1900 25-12-91
99.6 500 watts FM-96 Ba, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
100.1 10 kw 8HOT Darwin, Northern Territory 1,960 1400 14-1-95
100.2 1 kw Radio Fiji Suva, Fiji 2,000 1400 00-00-95
100.9 10 kw 8SBS Darwin, Northern Territory 1,960 1400 14-1-95
103.0 250 watts Radio Fiji Vunatavou 2,000 1400 20-1-96
104.4 1 kw FM104 Suva, Fiji 2,000 1400 20-1-96
. . . . . . .

Multi-hop Es Reception in Australia

Multi-hop sporadic E propagation in Australia is most frequent during the summer months of December and January. Distances received, generally are 1,900-2,700 miles for double-hop, and 3,000-3,900 miles for triple-hop. Four-hop sporadic E propagation has been noted on rare occasions. An example of four-hop Es is the reception of KVZK American Samoa chA2 55.25 MHz video and 59.75 MHz audio in Perth, Western Australia, at a distance of 4,700 miles.

At times it is difficult to decide if 3 or 4 hops were involved. For example, Genting Sempah, Malaysia chE2 48.2396 MHz video and 53.74 MHz audio has been received in Sydney, Australia via multi-hop sporadic E. The distance was 4,100 miles. This reception was either by 3 long ~ 1,400 mile hops, or 4 short ~ 1,000 mile hops.

ABS-CBN chA2 Manila, Philippines has been received via triple hop Es. The 59.75 MHz audio was also present, strong enough for wide FM reception.

Manila is located approximately 500 miles north of the geo-magnetic equator. The vicinity of the geomagnetic equator offers an Es reflection point during the day (equatorial Es). This bridges the hemispheres, and theoretically makes it possible to receive DX via multi-hop Es from the other hemisphere at the solstice at sunspot minimum.

The most frequent reception via double-hop sporadic E is the path from RTQ Toowoomba, QLD channel 0 46.1718 MHz into Perth, Western Australia. The path distance is ~ 2,000 miles.

Reception of New Zealand channel 1 45.25 MHz video is received in Perth every year, via triple-hop Es, at a distance of ~ 3,400 miles.

David Vitek, Adelaide Australia, frequently receives New Zealand TV channels 1 and 2 via double-hop Es (2,000 miles).

With more exotic modes of VHF DX propagation such as multi-hop sporadic E, a VHF receiver that includes SSB is a prime requirement for detecting weak TV signals. The ICOM R7000, R7100, R8500, and R9000 scanning receivers are all excellent in this regard.

Visual identification of band 1 TV signals via multi-hop Es is often difficult because of typical mediocre video quality. This is due to reflections from two or more E layer clouds, causing multi-path and ghosting. Also, signal levels are usually not strong because of losses associated with reflections off more than one E cloud. In these instances, precision frequency measurement of the video carrier is often the only option for identification of the signal.

My most distant FMDX via double-hop sporadic E is:
Sydney - KSBS-FM 92.1 MHz 15 kW American Samoa: 2,739 miles, or 4,409 Km.

TV Sets for Reception of Weak Signal Modes (Multi-Es or F2)

It is next to impossible to find TV sets, which are both multi-standard, and also suitable for DX TV. The following PDF article explains why: http://homepage2.nifty.com/ffk/d100.pdf

For several years, I have used a Blaupunkt BT 70 -25 VTM, NTSC, SECAM, and PAL 70cm multi-standard color TV. Because of the various reasons, as stated in the previous paragraph, I sometimes use this TV with the D100 TV tuner/converter. However, most of the time I use a Toshiba C-531 5" TV, because multi-hop TV signals are not strong, hence are usually received in black and white.

I use two 5 element band 1 45-70 MHz yagi antennas (one vertical, and the other horizontal). Various RF pre-amplifiers, including a RDX Labs UA-700, and home-built BF981 tunable Mosfet amps are used for low-level signals.

The D100 TV tuner's output at UHF channel 65 can be connected to the Blaupunkt, or any other TV. The D100 TV audio output at ~ 35 MHz or 95-108 MHz (typical), is connected to my Icom R7000 receiver. I use two 110 KHz filters for Wide FM, and 15 KHz narrow FM filter, for monitoring DXTV audio signals. With this set-up, the TV audio sensitivity is far better than found on a standard TV.

Most DXTV receptions via F2 or multi-hop sporadic E are typically not strong. For this reason, I use the narrow IF bandwidth setting on the D100, to improve the signal to noise ratio.

The German companies Grundig and Blaupunkt make good multi-standard TV sets.

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Copyright 2009 Todd Emslie